## INTRODUCTION

A brief introduction to formulas was already given in the very first article **What Excel does? How to use formula in Excel?**

Now, let us move forward and understand the terminology, system and procedures which will be followed in further learning.

## WHAT IS A FORMULA IN EXCEL?

A formula is a combination of digits and operators which return us a desired result after calculating that particular phrase.

Similar is the case of formula in Excel. If there were no FORMULAS in Excel, it would have been a simple word processing software like WORD.

FORMULA IN EXCEL can have mathematical operators, Excel functions and cell addresses or absolute values to process the calculations.

We will discuss each of them in details step wise step.

## ARITHMETIC OPERATORS PERMITTED IN EXCEL

Following operators are permitted in Excel formula

OPERATOR | FUNCTION |

+ | STANDARD ADDITION |

– | STANDARD SUBTRACTION |

/ | STANDARD DIVISION |

* | STANDARD MULTIPLICATION |

^ | EXPONENTIATION (POWER) |

& | CONCATENATE |

## ARITHMETIC OPERATORS: DESCRIPTION

### STANDARD ADDITION

Its one of the basic and widely used operators used in EXCEL FORMULAS. It adds the value of different operands.

**USAGE:**

**FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=value1+value2+value3+….

e.g. if we want to add 14, 22 and 45, the formula will be something like this.

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this

=14+22+45

The answer will appear in the cell as 81

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.**

=cell address containing first value+cell address containing second value+… so on.

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the three values 14,22 and 45 are put in cell number A12 A13 AND A14.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula.

The formula will be

=A12+A13+14

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

**STANDARD SUBTRACTION**

Its one of the basic and widely used operators used in **EXCEL FORMULAS**. It SUBTRACTS the value of second operand from the first one.

**USAGE:****FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=value1-value2-value 3… and so on

e.g. if we want subtract 14 from 20

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this

=20-14

The answer will appear in the cell as 6.

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.**

=cell address containing first value – cell address containing second value – … so on.

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the two values of 20 and 14 are put in cell number A12 and A13.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula

The formula will be

=A12-A13.

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

**STANDARD DIVISION**

Its one of the basic and widely used operators used in EXCEL FORMULAS. It DIVIDES the first operand from the second one and so on.

**USAGE:**

**FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=value1/value2

e.g. if we want to divide 20 by 10

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this

=20/10

The answer will appear in the cell as 2

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.**

=cell address containing first value /cell address containing second value .

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the two values of 20 and 10 are put in cell number A12 and A13.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula

The formula will be

=A12/A13.

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

**STANDARD MULTIPLICATION**

Its one of the basic and widely used operators used in EXCEL FORMULAS. It MULTIPLIES all the operands.

**USAGE:**

**FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=value1*value2*value3… so on.

e.g. if we want to multiply 12 and 5 and 6.

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this

=12*5*6

The answer will appear in the cell as 360

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.**

=cell address containing first value *cell address containing second value*cell address containing third value and so on .

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the three values of 12,5 and 6 are put in cell number A12,A13 and A14.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula

The formula will be

=A12*A13*A14.

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

**EXPONENTIATION [ RAISING TO THE POWER ]**

It finds out the value when we raise the power of any number.

**USAGE:****FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=number^power

e.g. if we want to raise 2 to the power 5 i.e. 25

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this in the formula bar

=2^5

The answer will appear in the cell as 32.

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.**

=cell address containing number^cell address of cell containing power.

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the two values of 2 and 5 are put in cell number A12 and A13.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula

The formula will be

=A12^A13

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

**CONCATENATION**

This operator attaches the text of one cell to the other. It is somewhat lesser know operator. Maximum people use the function directly even for the two values.

**USAGE:****FORMULA FORMAT:WHEN ABSOLUTE VALUES ARE USED**

Type the following phrase in the cell

=content 1& content2 &… so on

This function has not much importance to be used when we have absolute content as we can directly write that into the cell itself. Even then if we use the operator it’ll work.

Place the cursor in the cell , where we want the result to appear and type this in the formula bar

=2&5

The answer will appear in the cell as 25.

**FORMULA FORMAT: WHEN CELLS ADDRESSES ARE USED.(Practically useful)**

=cell address containing number&cell address of cell containing power&…..so on.

e.g. if we take the same example and suppose the two values of 2 and 5 are put in cell number A12 and A13.

Place the cursor in A15 and put the formula

The formula will be

=A12&A13

The answer will appear in the cell where you put the formula say A15.

### EXAMPLE SHOWING THE USAGE OF DIFFERENT OPERATORS